Animal research is often an area that is debated yet the effects of using animal research in medicine, science, and psychology cannot be denied. Many organizations exist to defend the rights of the nearly 100 million animals that are used in some form of animal research and experiments, however science has and will continue to perform various forms of animal research instead of testing harmful substances on human counterparts. It is a sad fact that these animals are often exterminated after their participation in scientific animal research, yet we can not negate the impact that these studies have on the longevity of our progress as a society though the question of animal research, for many, remains to be a controversial moral issue.
There are basically three kinds of animal research. These include Pure Research, Applied Research, and Toxicology. Pure Research is the arena where the research is conducted without what is referred to as "practical knowledge"; basically, it is to learn more information about something or rather to gain more knowledge. It isn't based on a proven fact, but a general quest to gain more knowledge in a certain area.
Applied research as it pertains to animal research is the area where, research is conducted to find a direct answer to a specific problem or question. Applied research is exploratory yet it will answer specific questions. Finally, Toxicology is the area where animal research is conducted in the avenue of testing. It is required by law that before products are ready for human use and consumption, they must first be tested, and though it is an ethical debate, this testing takes place in the form of animal research.
No matter what your personal views on animal research are, the impact that animal research and testing has had on modern medicine cannot be denied. The first organ transplants were performed on dogs, the effects of the antibiotic penicillin was first tested on mice, and today, we see the results of "genetic cloning" being tested on first, Dolly the Sheep and now successfully performed on a dog. Animal research has led to many scientific breakthroughs and discoveries.